Cultural Marxism and the Alt-Right

The Meaning of Corporatism

356 Enviro-critical Websites and additional info about the organized enviro-critical movement

Pierre Trudeau: Eco-fascist

A Primer for the Paris Climate Talks

Jorge Bergoglio's Green Encyclical

Environmentalism and Aboriginal Supremacism (Part 2): The Mobilization of Aboriginal Opposition to the Northern Gateway Pipeline

Environmentalism and Aboriginal Supremacism in Canada - Part 1 - Idle No More

Of Buffalo and Biofuel - More Tales of Environmentalism in Alberta

War on Coal

In Praise of the Jobs, Growth and Long-term Prosperity Act (Bill C-38)

Environmentalism and Edmonton Land Use Politics

The "Tar Sands" Campaign and the Suppression of North America's Energy Potential

Desertec and Environmentalism's North African Campaign

The Environmental Movement in Alberta

Environmentalism 400 BC

Spirit of NAWAPA

Waldheim's Monster:
United Nations' Ecofascist Programme

Early 19th Century British "Environmentalism"

Environmentalism's Appropriation of Christianity

Environmentalism's Environment

The Continental Counter-Enlightenment

The American Eco-Oligarchy update

If Only This Were About Oil


Who is Affraid of The Big Green Wolf

The Gore Presidential Bid

The Groundbreaking Career of Doctor Science

The English Environmental Elite, Global Warming, and The Anglican Church

The Great Global Warming Hoax

The American Oligarchy's Economic Warfare Campaign on British Columbians


By William Walter Kay

"Tell the King the fair-built hall has fallen. Apollo no longer has a shrine here, nor a prophetic laurel tree, nor a talking spring. The water of speech is silent."*


Fascisms: Eco, Neo and Paleo
The Third Reich's Second Religion One More Time
The Archangels of Ecofascism
Radical Ecology and Deep Environmentalism
Nature-borne Fanatics
Imperial Paganism


After eight years of work Thoemmes published the Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature (2005). The project was conceived during a 1997 American Academy of Religion conference when Professor Jerry Kaplan expressed interest in the “religion of nature” after noticing it was a worldview common to both his specialty, the racist right, and radical environmentalism, a specialty of the Encyclopedia’s editor Professor Bron Taylor. The Encyclopedia, a manifesto of sorts, has 1,000 entries from 500 academics. Many entries were written by key movement personalities such as Arne Naess, Jane Goodall, and Steven Rockefeller. Taylor stresses, “every standard entry in this encyclopedia was fully peer reviewed”. (1) The Encyclopedia affirms a wide connection between a “religion of nature” and fascism and an equally broad overlap between a “religion of nature” and environmentalism. The Encyclopedia betrays environmentalism as a social movement lousy with neo-Nazis, devil-worshippers, superstitious lunatics, pseudo-intellectuals, history fabricators, saboteurs, murderers and genocidal maniacs, narcotized youth, romantic primitivists and perniciously elitist anti-democratic religious nutters who corrupt science and slander technology while offering no realistic way to live in the modern world.

Fascisms: Eco, Neo and Paleo

The Encyclopedia contains a rare published discussion of “ecofascism”, defined as:
“a totalitarian government that requires individuals to sacrifice their interests to the well-being and the glory of the “land”...The land acquires mystical properties as the sacred source and absolute measure for all things. Polluting the land, either by toxins or by admitting the wrong kind of immigrants, not only threatens the state’s stability and security, but affronts the sacred natural order itself.” (2)

This definition comes with a warning:

“...ecofascism could grow if environmental problems lead to international tensions (e.g., disputes over water rights or immigration) that national leaders use an excuse to whip up nationalist and/or ethnic passions, build up military forces, suppress internal opposition, and enforce draconian laws compelling people to behave in ways consistent with the well-being and purity of nature.” (3) (emphasis added)

Another contributor offers a narrower, yet still compounded, definition:

“Ecofascism in its most extreme form links the racial purity of a people to the well-being of the nation’s land; calls for the removal or killing of non-native peoples; and may also justify profound individual and collective sacrifice of its own people for the health of the natural environment.” (4) (emphasis added)

These definitions are shallow and dated. The underlining emphasis is to point out what the contributor’s seem only partially aware of – that ecofascism, unlike its predecessor, need not have an overtly racist rationale. More importantly, the entire Encyclopedia presumes the legitimacy of the “environmental crisis”. Nowhere is there a hint “global warming” or “mass extinction” are Big Lies fabricated by a “fascistic” social movement. Such naiveté forms the ideological bedrock of the Encyclopedia’s point man on fascism, Professor Roger Griffin, who employs idiosyncratic, antiquated definitions and confines discussion to the Right’s dysfunctional radical flank. Griffin self-disqualifies by shamelessly flaunting his devotion to the “religion of nature”.

This much Griffin gets right: “fascism is a peculiarly protean force, capable of assuming a wide range of sometimes contradictory forms even within the same movement...its relationship to established or new religions can assume many contradictory guises.” (5) He notes post-WWII fascists are adept at covering their tracks and that fascism is a political religion, similar to millenarian movements, always exhibiting “a deep concern with nature and even with ecological issues.” (6)Fascists promote paganism, naturalism and nature cults. Griffin concedes there are many texts “documenting the place that an ersatz religion of nature has often played in fascist ideology.” (7) However, this is where he veers off the road; albeit he does so confessing his is a “a consciously conservative, “purist” position on fascism’s religious a result it takes issue with the considered judgement of several academics.” (8)To Griffin fascists never embrace, merely exploit, religions. In his view:

“extensive collusion between the Churches and both Fascist Italy and the Third Reich which came about in the interwar period, and the many fascist movements... which have sought to exploit Christianity’s mythic power for their own ends, point not to fascism’s deep kinship with religion, but rather to the perpetual propensity of human beings and their political leaders to pervert religion...” (9)

Fascism’s exploitation of Christianity does not make Christianity fascist. Fascist exploitation of the “religion of nature” does not make that religion fascist. Fascism takes “the form of a religion of nature” but fascists are not true believers. Having posited that, Griffin trots out “fascists” who got “religion”:
“Third Positionist (“Strasserite”) groups of national revolutionaries have made links with radical ecology groups such as the “Green Anarchists”. Similarly, the French (and now European) New Right embraces Green politics as part of a bid to bring about a “pagan liberation” of the modern world by re-establishing a pre-Christian cosmology and so restore a healthy “Indo-European” bond with nature...But it is contemporary US fascism in its more overtly pagan neo-Nazi incarnations such as Odinism and in its various hybrids with the racist heterodoxies of Christian Identity which is particularly rich in examples of bastardized fusions of fascism with the imagery of religion and nature. (10)

Griffin also points out the 1980s US Neo-Nazi guerrillas (The Order) proclaimed: “God is the personification of Nature proved perfect by the evidence of Natural Laws”. As well, the author of the infamous Turner Diaries subscribed to the “Cosmotheist” nature religion, and Ben Klassen’s Nature’s Eternal Religion (1973) bellows “pollution of the White Race is a heinous crime against Nature” and “It is our duty and privilege to further Nature’s plan.” Back in the UK,Reichsfolk leader DavidMyattclaimshe isfighting “in the name of Adolf Hitler and for the holiest cause of all...that of the Cosmic being itself, manifest to us in Nature.” (11)

This may startle Griffin: The most dangerous British Nazi in the 1930s was not some indigent handing out BUF flyers at bus-stops; it was the Duke of Windsor. The most dangerous eco-fascist and “religion of nature” preacher in the UK today is not some teenage stoner going door-to-door for Greenpeace, it’s Prince Charles. The concept of a persisting anti-democratic social movement, based in the aristocracy, dedicated to rolling back the cultural infrastructure of the Industrial Revolution eludes Griffin. He clings to the definition of fascism as an “ideology driven by a vision of the nation’s total rebirth from decadence”. (12)

This “palingenisis fascism” (for which Griffin holds the copyright) precludes the possibility of Pan-European fascism, or any form of international, sub-national or non-overtly racist fascism. Griffin zeros in on men goose-stepping into the 21st century with swastikas on their sleeves. These men are the gutter of the social movement. They are a shed skin of the movement – straw men.

Griffin fails to explain why many politicians exploit Christianity but only fascists exhibit devotion to a “religion of nature”. He would have a hard time accounting for this in an essay half taken up with his own bizarre warbling in defence of Panenhenism – a “religion of nature” sect characterized by epileptic epiphanies. (13) To the flagellant Griffin, fascists cannot be true believers in a “religion of nature” for two reasons. Firstly, fascism is anthropocentric, not eco-centric as required of the nature-worshipper. Ethnocentrism (racism) is a type of anthropocentrism. He asserts, as a jejune axiom, that eco-centricity is “the arch-enemy of ethnocentric mindsets.” Thus, “Ecofascism is inevitably a travesty and betrayal of green politics.” (14) The second reason involves the crucial epiphanies – the big ‘awes’ – over which Griffin completely looses it with incontinent twaddle about exploding Universes and mystical Shivas dancing in rhythmic symbiosis to sacred, natural beats. Nature-inspired ecstatic episodes cannot occur to people, like fascists, who love marching armies and howling mobs. This is actually his argument! Hence, according to the expert, when fascists “employ the discourse of a “religion of nature” they do so metaphorically.” Fascists “create an insidious verbal register which exploits the mythic power” of Nature “purely as a source of mystification and legitimation”. The professor-come-raver again graciously concedes his thesis will be “inevitably contentious” within academia.(15)

The Third Reich's Second Religion, One More Time

A “religion of nature” was not the Third Reich’s official religion. The regime endorsed “positive Christianity.” (16)The religious problematique confronting Euro-Conservativism, then and now, was two-fold: Firstly, the ancient regime was losing control of Church governance to plebeian elements. Secondly, Christianity was losing its grip on the masses who were increasingly taken up with a secular, republican, scientific discourse. The reaction was two-fold thus contradictory. They attempted to re-assert control over the established churches and to concoct new religions with scientistic veneers masking the land-worshipping imperative. This contradiction outed in the Third Reich. The Nazis were unable and unwilling to abolish Christianity because German churches were deeply entrenched institutions, hence closing them would have been extremely contentious. As well, the Nazis had many allies within the German clergy. Nevertheless, an anti-Christian “religion of nature” was widely subscribed to within the Nazi Party, particularly among its elite. Pivotal ministers like Hess, Darre and Himmler made no secret of their religious views and openly transferred state resources to the nature-religion cause.Griffin concedes Himmler held strong eco-religious beliefs.(17) He also concedes Nazism:

“generates images which evoke a specious kinship with a ‘penenhenistic’ communion with nature: the landscapes of woods and lakes so beloved of ‘Aryan’ painters, Blood and Soil visionaries, and the Hitler Youth; the Fuhrer greeting Dirndl-clad peasant-girls or musing on his plans of world conquest against the backdrop of sun-kissed Bavarian mountain crests; the idyllic portraits of rural life cultivated by the strapaese current of fascism...” (18)

Griffin does not limit this trait to German fascism. He mentions:

“the nocturnal initiation ceremonies held deep in the Transylvanian forests by so called ‘nests’ of Legionaries of the Archangel Michael to forge bonds of Romanian brotherhood; the landscapes and wildlife undefiled by the modern metropolis so lovingly described in the novels of Henry Williamson, author of Tarka the Otter and propagandist for the British Union of Fascists, and Knut Hamsun, Nobel prize winner for literature and supporter Quisling’s Nasjonalsamling” (19)

Griffin begrudgingly canvasses other historians. He calls Anna Bramwell “wrongheaded” but does not say why. (20) He admits RobertPoisinterprets “National Socialism as a religion of nature” but faults him for not seeing the Nazis were faking. (21) He acknowledges Gasman’s thesis that Nazism was rooted in Ernst Haeckel’s Monism (described as a fusion of Social Darwinism, vitalism and volkish anti-Semitism) but counters that Haeckel’s “racist brand of nationalism caused him to be unfaithful to any genuinely ecological, and hence ‘penenhenistic,’ moments of epiphany.” (22)

Other contributors are not as fussy as Griffin. One claims:
“A radical approach to environmentalism amounting indeed to a religion of nature that has striking affinities with the nature-revering spiritualities of radical environmentalism, has always been strong in National Socialist thought, and with the wartime defeat, has become as a much a trademark of the movement as anti-Semitism and racialist thought.” (23)

Another contributor, while claiming no ecofascist state has yet existed, goes on to say:

“important aspects of it [ecofascism] can be discerned in German National Socialism... Some portray Nazism as a political religion... The Nazis explicitly contrasted their “religion of nature” with the otherworldliness of Christianity, itself a product of the ‘unnatural’ Jews...German land had to be protected both from industrial pollution and from the injurious presence of half-breeds... Capitalism and communism which not only reduced peoples to undifferentiated masses but destroyed the land with their industrial practices...the ecofascist aspect of National Socialism must be kept in mind by those environmentalists who call for worshipping nature...” (24)

Another contributor tells us in as many words: “Pagan ideas were used once by groups like the Nazis” while another points out: “the German Reich – inspired by Nazi rhetoric  – passed what was at the time the world’s most far-reaching environmental legislation.” (25)Yetanother contributor adds, “Nazism was a semi-religious ideology” leading to a “passionate protection of trees” and the passing of “the first significant nature-protection laws in Europe.” This contributor then relays conclusions of four more historians including one who finds “affinities between the Nazis and the Greens. The Nazis were strongly opposed to ‘blind industrialization,’ ‘materialist consumerism,’ the increasingly soulless modern society and its technological excesses. They always stressed the return to nature, to a simpler and healthier life.”  The second points out: “Goering put into practice the Reich’s Game Law which permitted capital punishment of a person who killed an eagle, and either deportation or confinement in a concentration camp for practitioners of vivisection... the camp’s medical staff was less fussy about operating on humans than hounds.” The third notes similarities between “Hitler’s statements and those of contemporary environmentalists.” Finally, the fourth “describes the relationship between environmentalism and Nazism, pointing out that Hitler was deeply influenced by such evolutionary concepts of the strong killing the weaker and the resulting progress of nature.” (26)

More gems are found in entries detailing the “religion of nature’s” recurring characteristics. The entry on “Earth Mysteries” claims:

“German landscape researchers Wilhelm Teudt and Josef Heinsch popularized the notion that Teutonic peoples possessed a centralized, protoscientific solar cult which built an extensive network of astronomical lines, so called ‘holy Lines’, the existence of which could still be found in the geographical layout of ancient sites. Supported by Heinrich Himmler, Teudt became the head of an association dedicated to promoting Germany’s ancestral heritage and the search for ‘holy lines’ and astrological orientations was encouraged as a pro-party act by the Nazis before and during World War II...After the war, German geomancy suffered from its connections with Nazism, but in the 1960s, similar ideas resurfaced in other parts of Europe and North America, as part of the general resurgence of interest in ancient civilizations and mysterious phenomena.”  (27)

The section on the “Book of Nature” metaphor finds:

“The Fascist movement in Germany is the darkest example of the ways in which pastoral themes in the art and literature of German romanticism were exploited to nationalistic purpose. The pursuit of a redemptive and ‘pure’ rural Germany was linked to the concept of establishing a pure German race. German romanticism was one of the many ‘background theories’ in the growth of National Socialism, but it is undeniable that anti-Semitism developed with popular celebrations of German life...The concept of the book of nature, then, was not always beneficent.” (28)

On the topic of the eco-pagan cliché activity of solar worship...:

“the sun is likewise emerging as an increasingly important focus. But this development faces the onus of associations and abuses in the name of solar worship committed under the Third Reich...the German Volkstumbewegung developed a practice of sun worship that included sun-bathing and the celebration of the solstices. It had been prompted by a popular sense of estrangement from nature in the face of early nineteenth-century urban industrialization and machine-based civilization. The Volkische movement turned toward pre-Christian beliefs in which the ancient sun worship was considered more consistent with scientific modernism than were the prevailing Christian and Jewish theologies. The contemporary Western Pagan solar focus and solstice/equinoctial celebrations are based on similar relations...” (29)

Editor Taylor also wrote the “Ecology and Nature Religion” entry in another Encyclopedia of Religion (2nd edition Thomson Gale 2005) where he imparts a sympathetic treatment of Bramwell’s thesis that ecology is a pantheistic religion close to Nazism. Taylor introduces yet another historian holding similar views and then adds that contemporary field research shows unmistakable overlaps between modern extreme right-wing groups and an environmentalist “religion of nature.”

The Archangels of Ecofascism

The word “ecology” was coined by Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919). His views were an “uneasy syncretism” of the “evolutionary theories of Lamarck” and the “romantic biology of Goethe.” (30)His original notoriety stemmed from his alchemic “ontologeny recapitulates phylogeny” theory – a highfalutin way of saying developmental stages of embryology are similar to those of biological evolution. The unavoidable similarity of two processes involving single cellular organisms growing into multi-cellular ones was aided by “Haeckel’s famous illustrations of an embryo replicating the stages of evolution” which “still appear in textbooks” despite “a lingering controversy over whether they were falsified.” They were forgeries.Haeckel’s fame also derived from his “psychedelic” sketches of microorganisms, as “eccentrically seen through his microscope,” which were borrowed by the Art Noveau movement. By1904 Haeckelacquired “international acclaim as a populariser of science.” His “rapid rise” began in 1899 with publication ofThe Riddle of the Universe which sold 100,000 copies in 5 years. The book’s “unprecedented success” is credited to “Haeckel’s concept of Monism, ‘the connecting link between religion and science’.” Haeckel began preaching Monism in 1892 but initially attracted attention mainly fromclergy outraged by his anti-Christian polemics. Riddledebuted Monism asan “explicitly pantheistic” religion. Nature-worship, Haeckel hoped, “would replace Christianity.” Monism’s popularity among sun-worshipping, vegetarian, Aryan mystics oftheGermanyouthmovementpromptedHaeckel’sdisciples to convene in Jena in 1906 to formalize a Monist religious order. In 10 yearsit had 6,000 disciples in 45 cities. Haeckel’s subsequent writings were more religious. His clearest expression of Pantheism was God-Nature(1914)whereinhe instructed his followers to worship “Pantheos” – a trinity-god consisting of Matter, Energy and ‘Pychcom’ (a psyche-body hybrid). His last book argued crystals had souls. (31) Haeckel’s militant Pan-German chauvinism, anti-Semitism and elitism are incontrovertible facts.

The entry on Haeckel contemporary Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) begins by discussing the “Lynn White Thesis” which created uproar in 1967 by arguing “our present ecological crisis” required “we adopt a new religion or radically rethink our old one.” Deepecologists “whole-heartedly adopted White’s call for a new religion.” (32)The entry continues:

“Nietzsche not only anticipates many of White’s criticism of Christianity and monotheistic religion, but the development of his thinking also shows a movement from what can be described as a reform environmentalist position to a position that has many affinities with the views of the deep ecologists...Nietzsche’s principal line of criticism of Christianity is almost identical to the line of criticism that was later developed by White. Like White, Nietzsche criticizes Christianity for divorcing humans from the natural world, for elevating humanity above nature, for denigrating the Earth by instilling in humans the feeling that they are the crown of creation, and thus lords over the other creatures....for Nietzsche as for White traditional religious thinking has tended to ascribe a disproportionate importance to the human species, thereby providing a religious framework for the domination of the natural world.” (33)

Nietzsche “wanted to discover wild and naked nature” and believed “nature has certain goals.” He stressed: “Man is absolutely not the crown of creation: every creature stands beside him at the same stage of perfection.” Hisacknowledgement of “views and values of non-human creatures” openedtheway “for a non-exploitative relationship of humanity with nature.” Nietzsche is hailed as “one of the first modern Western thinkers to recognize two key concepts of contemporary ecological thinking: the interdependency of all living things, and the importance of environmental factors for the quality of both human and non-human life.” His holism was, “an implicit call for the preservation of endangered species.” The entry concludes with a hope-filled passage from Nietzsche that someday we “would live among men and with oneself as in longer feel the goading thought that one was not simply nature or that one was more than nature.” (34) The entry is perhaps the first published account of Nietzsche’s views and legacy NOT mentioning his robust Social Darwinism, his strident hostility to democracy or the fact that within the fascist movement a Nietzsche cult was so prevalent his anthologies became required readings as inspirational guides for Nazi intellectuals.    

Also in this milieu was Croatian Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) who early on “became extraordinarily aware of the non-obvious energies within vegetable and animal life.” He perceived two worlds, “an outer more technical one, and a subtle world of formative forces.” (35)He attained aPh.D. inphilosophyand “considerable respect” by the end of the 19th century.His The Philosophy of Freedom(1895) describedthinking as a spiritual activity, not merely a brain function.Steiner edited a compilation of Goethe’s nature poetry whilefurtherdeveloping his “scientific investigation of spiritual worlds.” Steiner believed in a spiritual co-evolution of humanity, Earth and Nature occurring in conjunction with “nine hierarchies of angels and archangels.” (36)To Steiner, old dogma-based religions were inferior to new sensually-based spiritual ones.He ran the German Theosophical Society from 1902 to 1912, leaving to found the Anthroposophical Society which he re-organized in 1923 explicitly based on “spiritual science.” Steiner sought to “revolutionize humanity’s relation to nature” bytreating “non-ordinary perception in a scientific manner.” In 1925 helaunched “bio-dynamic agriculture” – “a non-chemical organic method of farming that enlists spiritual agencies.” This agriculture was founded on “spiritually based ecology” wherein Naturedemanded cooperation in exchange for exploitation.(37)His work continues:

“The mission of the Anthroposophical Society is to promote spiritual science and facilitate its application to various practical fields of endeavour. Its worldwide membership is now over 50,000, and it sponsors approximately 10,000 institutions such as schools, colleges, artistic groups, homes for those with special needs, clinics, medical practices, farms, research institutions, etc.” (38)

The entry on Walther Darre (1895-1953) is misleading and inaccurate. The assertion Darre was “the man most representative of the ‘green’ wing of National Socialism” is subjective, dubious and diverts attention from Himmler, Goering and other green Nazis. The assertion Darre avoided political affiliations in the 1920s is dead wrong – he was a member of Steel Helmet and the fascistic Freedom Party from the early 1920s and before that was in the Free Corps. Darre did, “eschew Christianity in favour of neo-heathenist ideals” and his “racialism was ‘ecological’ in the sense that it was an effort to safe-guard precious racial characteristics that he understood as threatened by an urbanized and unnatural world.” However, defining his nationalism as “defensive” is impossible to square with his involvement in Nazi campaigns in the east. As well, to say his ThePeasantryas the Life-Source of the Nordic Race(1929) and A New Nobility of Blood and Soil(1930)present “the core of his thinking, which remained unchanged over his lifetime” is bootless because these books were fantastical propaganda he never acted upon as Nazi Agriculture Minister.Darre did begin “measures to promote changeovers to organic farming.” However this statement: “another key party member who supported environmentally sound and holistic approaches to agriculture was Rudolf Hess, but the latter’s ill-fated solo flight to England in 1941 caused such tendencies to be looked upon with grave suspicion” – conceals the fact that many Nazi leaders were supportive of organic farming and other “environmentally sound” approaches before and after 1941. Released from prison in 1950 (on health grounds) Darre spent his final years pushing the necessity of organic farming; a phrase he invented. His articles were circulated in the English-speaking world by Britain’s Soil Association; leaders of the organic foods movement. The entry concludes Darre remains a role model for the “racial revolutionary who is opposed to the illness and alienation caused by the excesses of modern capitalism in an industrialized, urbanized, and globalized modern world.” (39)

Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) “offered such an influential critique of the technological domination of nature, he has been read as a forerunner of contemporary environmentalism.” (40)Heideggerisalso the “forerunner of deep ecology” (41)and the pioneer of environmentalism’s college buddy: postmodernism. (42) While Heidegger’s early critique of “Western humanism” evidenced little concern for Nature, his later writings praised the “holy wildness – the primal that eludes human mastery.” He was always anti-urban, pro-countryside and critical of technology. In opposition to the “technological will to power” he offered “releasement” where people “let things be,” allowingthem to develop naturally “rather than in accordance with the demands placed upon them by the technological order.” He denounced “anthropocentric humanism”, animalmistreatmentandthe “heedless destruction of the natural world.” His final writings declared “only a god can save us” from “modern technology.” (43)

According to the Encyclopedia, what is “impeding easy assimilation of Heidegger’s thought to contemporary environmentalism” ishis “affiliation with National Socialism.” The subsequent statement: “starting in 1933, Heidegger infamously used his own philosophy to support National Socialism” is disingenuous.(44)In the 1920s Heidegger’s denunciations of “academic freedom” and the “Jewification” of German culture occurred simultaneously with his miraculous rise to stardom within continental philosophy circles. Heidegger was a Nazi Party member. He vigorously defended Nazi domestic and foreign policies. As Rector of Freiburg University he actively participated in a political purge. He personally sent a telegram to Hitler (April 1934) asking the Fuhrer to delay a conference of university administrators until opponents of Nazism were annihilated. On speaking tours his mantra was: “Let not doctrines and ideas be your guide. The Fuhrer is Germany’s only reality and law.” After the war Heidegger refused to denounce Nazism or discuss its crimes. In 1953 he wrote of “the inner truth and greatness of National Socialism.” (45)He supervised the “new” Nietzsche’s reconstruction.  

Mircea Eliade (1907-1986) dominated academic religious studies and was an architect of the “religion of nature. He was a professor at the Sorbonne for 12 years before being welcomed by the University of Chicago in 1957. He was a prolific writer of “fiction, memoirs (and) treatises on the history of religion.” (46) His more influentialbooks are:Cosmos and History(1954),Yoga (1958),The Sacred and the Profane(1959),Myth and Reality(1963), Shamanism(1964), Occultism, Witchcraft and Cultural Fashion (1976) and the three-volume History of Religious Ideas (1978-85). He was editor-in-chief for the 16-volume Encyclopedia of Religion (1987).(47)Eliade’s objective was to recover the mindset of “the ideal type of traditional, pre-modern persons acting and thinking religiously.” He obsessed on the “dialectic” between the sacred and the profane. He believed certainplaces, “often situated amidst nature,” were “sacred.”He championed a “cosmic religion” pre-existingJudeo-Christianityandfocused on “the turn of the seasons...holy mountains, trees, rocks, and waterfalls.” But to Eliade: “Nature was also the abode of demons and the terrain into which apprentice shamans or those on a vision quest would venture to engage in spiritual warfare and gain the favour of a divine patron.” (48) The entry mentions Eliade “had a controversial relation to the fascist Iron Guard” and “served as cultural attaché to the Romanian legations in London and Lisbon.” (49)Eliade can be connected to fascism as far back as 1931. By 1935 he was a propagandist for the Legion of Archangel Michael – a violently fascist, anti-Semitic party, eventually outlawed. Eliade, while incarcerated, refused to disassociate himself from the Legion and later boasted of his involvement. From his release until 1945 Eliade worked in the foreign bureau of the Office of Propaganda for Romania’s pro-Nazi absolutist (Hohenzollern) monarchy. (50)

Julius Evola (1898-1974) was both the main “Italian representative of the Traditionalist school” and “one of the most radical right-wing and anti-modern spiritual philosophers” of the 20th century.(51) He was a leader of avante-garde intellectuals in the 1920s when his poetry and paintings were the main Italian contribution to “Dada art”. Being head of the magical order, UR, connected Evola to people who permanently fastened him to Traditionalism. Other influences were Plato, Nietzsche andOswaldSpengler. From the latter he borrowed the “cyclical organic interpretation of history.” Evola wrote detailed expositions of his “magical idealist” theories in Tantra (1925), Hermeticism (1931), and Buddhism (1943).Revolt against the Modern World (1935) was his Traditionalist magnus opus.Traditionalismrejected “evolutionism, positivism, materialism, and the entire notion of progress” and “vehemently opposed humanistic socio-political doctrines such as democracy and egalitarianism.” Evolafound little value inscience or technology. Modernity was “mechanized, spiritually impoverished” and “metropolitan life petrified everything.” His “spiritual doctrine of race” was endorsed by Mussolini. More fascist than el Duce, Evolawanted fascism without “plebeian tendencies” embodying “transcendental” principles. He opposed church-stateseparation preferring a “sacrally sanctioned empire.” (52)

Seriously injured in the Russian bombardment of Vienna in 1945, Evola was confined to his apartment in Rome following the war where he held court for, “young neo-fascists in search of an ideological guru.” (53)In 1951 he was arrested for “glorifying Fascism and inspiring extremist groups through his writings.” His final writings dwelled on overpopulationand sound like deep ecology.(“Only nature can help in this task... nature [that] ceases to speak to man...nature that is substantiated by greatness and pure forces.”)He emphasized geomancy – theperforming of rites and placing of temples in “sacred” locations.To Evolacertain locations were “uncontaminated antithesis” to modernity. He pointed to “harsh and lonely mountain tops, imbued with majesty and offering a rare opportunity for select individuals to test themselves ...thereby gaining transcendent knowledge of the spirit.” The entry concludes:

“Interest in Evola’s philosophy has grown since the time of his death, in scholarly as well as esoteric and rightist milieus. Nearly all of his main books have now been translated into the major European languages, and in Rome the Julius Evola Foundation endeavours to increase awareness of his work. As a forceful antithesis to a contemporary Western world that places great value on science and progress, and humanism Evola’s brand of Traditionalism continues to fascinate new generations of radicals who question the entire metaphysical basis of modern secular thought and behaviour.” (54)

Hovering over Eco-Paganism is Savitri Devi (1905-1982). Born Maximiani Portas in Paris of Greek and British parents, she married an Indian and moved to Calcutta. She had an early interest in “Aryan philosophical and religious traditions” and a “lifelong aversion to Judaism.” Her British passport and fluent English allowed her to establish a salon for Allied officers in Calcutta where “whatever intelligence that could be gathered quickly found its way to the German consulate.” This treason did not impair her popularity when she returned to Europe in 1945. In England she was “well received in British intellectual and occult circles” particularly after the publication of her book on religious heritage, A Son of God. She moved to Iceland to incorporate Norse gods into her “Aryan religiosity”.  Devi’s writings on these topics, “anticipated by decades Odinism’s popularization of the Norse/German pantheon as a fitting Aryan racial religion.” Her Impeachment of Manis “a classic in the current world of National Socialism.” It remains the “strongest statement of the National Socialist nature religion that may be found today. The book opens with “epigraphs from Alfred Rosenberg (‘Thou shalt love God in all things, animals and plants’) and Josef Goebbels, who in a diary entry quotes the Fuhrer’s resolve to create a post-war society that would eschew the eating of meat.” Impeachment “is passionate on the rights of animals and of plants, as contrasted with human’s egocentric consumption and destruction of the natural world.” (55)

Devi toured Allied-control Germany in 1949 handing out neo-Nazi pamphlets at every stop. The authorities put a stop to that, incarcerating her for months but causing her no grief:

“Because for the last twenty years I have loved and admired Hitler and the German people...I was happy – oh so happy! – thus to express my faith in the superman whom the world has misunderstood and hated and rejected. I was not sorry to lose my freedom for the pleasure of bearing witness to his glory.” (56)

Upon her release she wrote several books which “eloquently convey...the powerful dream of a religio-mystical Aryan Golden Age.” (57)The most popular of these, Lightning and the Sun (1956) – “a remarkable exposition on occult National Socialism’s nature mysticism” – ends hoping that the “most heroic of all our men against time – Adolf Hitler – will survive at least in songs and symbols... render him divine honours, through rites full of meaning and full of potency, in the cool shade of the endless re-grown forests, on the beaches, or upon inviolate mountain peaks, facing the rising sun.” (58)Her writings continue to profoundly influence the radical right:

“More than any single figure, it was Devi who would carry the torch of occult National Socialism through the grim period following World War II. Through her writings and her personal example, she would inspire a new generation of National Socialists to explore the occult byways of racial mysticism that were once such Third Reich figures as Heinrich Himmler.” (59)

Norwegian Arne Naess (b.1912) began as an academic writing on semantics, scepticism and Spinoza.He coined the term “deep ecology” in 1972 and remains “one of the major international voices of deep ecology.” (60)Naess invented the “deep” rubric to distance himself from shallow environmentalism “rooted only in concern for humans.” Deep ecology signifies, “deeply felt spiritual connections to the Earth’s living systems and ethical obligations to protect them, as well as the global environmental movement that bears its name.” (61) Naess’ popularity stems from (aside from having an ultra-rich, jet-setting brother) a 1976 eco-philosophical text later republished as Ecology, Community and Lifestyle. He influenced the green movement through articles, speeches and participation in direct action. His personal view, “Ecosophy T” (“T” being the first letter of his chalet’s name), combines Hindu asceticism with “a belief in the world as the ultimate concern typical of religious environmentalism.” (62) Naess makes a cameo appearance in the Encyclopedia with an essay beginning with boasts about his expertise in scepticism (a skill he never applied to the “environmental crisis”). The ONLY environmental problem he addresses is overpopulation. He ponders aloud: “a more moderate number of humans on this planet will eventually make it possible for people to live where they would like to live... I do not see an easy way of how it could happen...Reduced population is of course an important factor in decreasing the ecological crisis...Ecosophy T envisages considerable reduction in population.” (63)

Strangely for such a brief essay, Naess digresses far off the trail to tell us one of his mountain climbing buddies was such “a Hitler fan” he was reluctant to eat food touched by a Jew. In yet another wild digression he reveals his involvement in securing the release of Nazi-collaborators; musing on how “flabbergasted” fellow Norwegians were to see him with such “well known traitors”. (64)

The mountain climbing connection is important. Environmentalism lionizes wilderness activities (fly-fishing, hunting, surfing, etc.) but mountain climbing as an elite sport provides a unique religious bonding experience for upper-class politicos. Evola told his neo-fascist disciples that “alpine experiences” were spiritually crucial.(65) The Encyclopedia dwells on the “undeniable relation between deep-ecological activities” and climbing, noting that “a number of mountain climber-intellectuals are drawn to deep ecology because of spiritual experiences they have made outdoors, many of them being influenced by Arne Naess’ earliest environmental philosophy. Naess himself was an experienced climber.” (66) The religious aspect of mountain climbing is expounded upon with references to 19th century “Romantic authors” (Goethe, Novalis, Emerson, Thoreau) who “describe their meeting with mountains as an epiphany on nature’s sacred dimensions.” For “modern environmentalism” it is especially mountains that symbolize “wilderness.” (67) Equally important, famous mountaineers are cash conduits for radical environmentalism. Here the Encyclopedia begs as many questions as it answers about high finance and brand-name fashion:

“outdoor and climbing companies participate in grassroots deep ecology activities not only for advertisement reasons... This is true in particular for Doug Thompkins (founder of ‘The North Face’ and ‘Esprit’), who funded the ‘Foundation for Deep Ecology’, the ‘Ecoforestry Institute’, and ‘the El Pumalin Bosque Foundation,’ which ambitiously supports the idea of Pumalin National Park in Chile... Yvonee Chouinard (founder of ‘Patagonia’ and ‘Black Diamond’) spends a fixed part of the company’s budget on grassroots environmental projects, many with a biocentric, radical environmental approach. Reinhold Messner (affiliated with ‘Salewa’) is a member of the European Parliament for the Green Party [Messner, in particular, stresses the religious aspects of climbing and also claims to have encountered ‘Bigfoot’.]...’Jack Wolfskin’ (founded by the German Wolfgang Dausien) supports environmental projects around the world.” (68)

From Haeckel to Naess – from ecology to deep ecology – 9 archangels of the “religion of nature” authored some 70 texts which were basis and inspiration for the thousands of volumes constituting the canon of continental ecology. All 9 were proto-fascist, fascist or crypto-fascist – case closed.

Radical Ecology & Deep Environmentalism

The Encyclopedia has separate entries for “deep ecology” and “radical environmentalism” – a common but questionable distinction. Some define radical environmentalism as “a cluster of environmental movements and ideologies that share an overall worldview that includes a perception of the sacredness of nature.” Thus radical environmentalism encompasses deep ecology as in:

“Radical environmentalism includes not only groups like Earth First! and the Earth Liberation Front, but also bioregionalists, and green anarchists, deep ecologists, and ecopsychologists, ecofeminists, and participants in the feminist spirituality movement, Pagans and Wiccans, anti-globalization protesters and some animal-liberation activists.” (69)

Others see deep ecology encompassing radical environmentalism and axial organizations as in:

“Not only is deep ecology the prevailing spirituality of bioregionalism and radical environmentalism; it also undergirds the International Forum on Globalization and the Ruckus Society... these groups are generously funded by the San Francisco-based Foundation for Deep Ecology and other foundations, which share deep ecological perceptions.” (70)

They see deep ecology extending beyond radical environmentalism as “an increasingly influential green spirituality and ethics that is universally recognized in environmentalist enclaves.” However most treat deep ecology and radical environmentalism as synonyms and for good reason. Both embrace direct action and extra-legal defence of nature. Both are forms of naturemysticismadvocating “spending time in nature with a receptive heart” astheir “central spiritual episteme.” Both share the apocalypticview that humanity is “precipitating a massive extinction episode and threatening life on Earth.” Deep ecologist and radical environmentalist intelligentsia are often lumped together as when Gary SnyderandPaul Shepard are called “the most influential scholars of Radical Environmentalism and Deep Ecology theory in America.” Deeps and Radicals both praise primitive indigenous cultures, viewing them as “models for a post-revolutionary world.” Both oppose Christianity and are inclined toward a Pantheist-Paganist outlook in spite of pleas from green Christian theologians who contend Christianity can be re-framed. (71) A “clear prerequisite” of radical environmentalism is the “biocentric or ecocentric” perspectivewhich is also cited as the sine qua non of deep ecology. Both radicals and deeps are defined by opposition to the shallow, reformist environmentalists – people with a less torrid commitment to the Cause and who oppose direct action.Against them the Deep/Radicalsshout that “the primary moral imperative is to halt the human reduction of the Earth’s genetic species” thus “direct-action resistance is necessary, permissible, and even morally obligatory.” Intriguingly, Deep/Radicals also “point out, accurately, that many mainstream environmentalists, even some who denounce them publically, share their sense of urgency and feel the radical tactics contribute significantly to the environmental cause, in part by strengthening the negotiating positions of ‘moderate’ environmentalists.” (72)

Although there is no ‘party line’, the “Deep Ecology Platform” drafted by Naess and George Sessions is subscribed to by most deeps and radicals (and others). The Platform extols the inherent value of non-human life and questions the value of improving humanity’s material well-being. Article 5 postulates: “human interference in the non-human world is already excessive and worsening.” Article 4 states: “Human life can flourish with a substantial reduction in human population, which is needed for the flourishing of non-human life.”Many conclude article 4 justifies “draconian birth control methods.” Nevertheless, the platform “has won the assent from many environmentalists”. (73)It has critics:

French scholar Luc Ferry (1995) maintains that deep ecology is incapable of providing guidance in moral decision making...he argues it promotes ‘ecofascism,’ namely the sacrifice of individual humans for the benefit of the ecological whole...” (74)

Success has a thousand fathers. Deep Ecology is a success. Naess, Heidegger and Ghandi are all fathers. Another proud papa is Aldo Leopold whose A Sand County Almanac (1948) is credited as the first succinct expression of this worldview. (75) Also waiting outside the maternity ward are Gary Snyder, Bill Devall, George Sessions, Paul Shepard and Christopher Stone. The consummating event was the 1974 Claremont Conference on “Rights of Non-Human Nature” inspired by Stone’s law article “Should Trees have Standing?” The conference attracted many green intellectuals including Sessions who, like Naess, based his philosophy on Spinoza’s Pantheism. Sessions co-authored Deep Ecology (1985) with Devall. Snyder, another conference goer, won thePulitzerPrizeforTurtle Island (1969)which “proclaimed the value of place-based spiritualities, indigenous cultures, and animistic perceptions.” He was joined by Shepard who writes books contending foraging is superior to agriculture. Shepard and Snyder believe humanity fell from a natural paradise into a farming hell. One dad who skipped Claremont is Ed Abbey whose Desert Solitaire (1968)portrayed “the desert as a sacred place uniquely able to evoke in people a proper, non-anthropocentric understanding.” (76) Abbey, Naess and the Claremont clique became leaders of a sub-movement “greatly influencing grassroots environmentalism.” (77)

The Deep/Radical sub-movement conducts its own appropriation strategy. They have appropriated sacred texts from, and recruited allies within, minority sects of large religions, notably the Daoists. A larger appropriative project is being undertaken vis a vis Anarchism. Deep/Radical sub-movement strategists know: “Anarchists exposed to Radical Environmentalist thought rather easily adopt environmental and animal liberationist concerns.” In the new Anarchism atheists like Bakunin and Proudhon are out and spiritualists like Thoreau and Ghandi are in. Anarcho-syndicalism is out and Anarcho-primitivism is in. Anarcho-primitivist kahuna, JohnZerzan,is open to considering “nature-spirituality as an important resource for the struggle to overturn industrial civilization.” (78) Anarchism’s call forabolishingnationstates dovetails with the “bio-regionalist” sub-movement – “a branch of Radical Environmentalism” sharing the “deep ecological valuing of the natural world.” (79)Snyder’s Turtle Island promotesbioregionalism.Abram’s The Spell of the Sensuous and House’s Totem Salmon combine bioregionalism with “spiritual perceptions” flattering to “indigenous peoples.” US bioregionalists boast 100 groupsand10,000adherents. (80)

There is a psycho-cultish component to the Deep/Radical sub-movement. Most deep ecologists, certainly Naess, believe “personal experiences of a profound connection with nature...give rise to deep ecological commitments.” (81) Deeps typically trace their embrace of the ideology back to personal epiphanies called “finding one’s ecological self”. (82)Ecopsychologydates to Shepard’s Nature and Madness (1982) and W. Fox’s Toward a Transpersonal Ecology (1990) but it did not take on movement dimensions until the mid-1990s after two international conferences engendered a flock of books “promoting earthen spiritualities, therapies, and ritual processes – pantheistic, Gaian, animistic, indigenous, and shamanistic – as antidotes to human alienation from nature and as a means of fostering an environmental renaissance.” The conferences, organized by the International Transpersonal Association, targeted intellectuals working at the “intersections of New Age spirituality and radical environmentalism” (Ram Dass, Vandana Shiva, etc.). Conference organizer, psychologist Ralph Metzner, in spite of criticism from his profession, built bridges between therapists and eco-spiritualists. He recommends his patients use hallucinogens to find their ecological selves. (83) Recruitment strategies commonly use intoxicants and emotional appeals (often targeting youth). In 1980 David Foreman of Earth First! and John Seed of the Rainforest Information Centre were both conducting “road shows” to “transform consciousness and promote environmental action”. “Road shows” were Bacchanal parties accompanied by emotional speeches, pop music and films depicting defiled environments. (84)

Seed’s partner, Joanna Macy, created the Council of All Beings (CAB) ritual so recruits could experience the non-human perspective. CAB began in 1985 when Macy and Seeddiscoveredtheysharedapassion aboutNaess’s writingsonthe “ecological self.” CAB is a ritual wherein “participants step aside from their human identity and speak on behalf of another life form.” Lasting up to a few days, CAB rituals require recruits don masks and personas of endangered species. Pleas are delivered on behalf of animals followed by denunciations of humans and commitments to be true ecologists. In the “mourning cairn” variation participants circle around and by turn lay stones in the centre to a solemn drumbeat. Eachstonerepresents “a family farm replaced by a shopping mall, a fishing stream polluted or paved over.” Some CABs involve “evolutionary remembering” where, to adrumbeat,participants crawlandwriggle through “amphibian and reptile, life stages.” After Thinking like a Mountain: towards a Council of All Beings (1988, co-written by Naess), CAB traversed the world as “activists, religious groups and environmental educators” sought to “break free from our culture’s anthropocentricism.” Macy now trains CAB instructors. CABs are used in church services and as “environmental education” are used in settings “from elementary and high school classrooms to graduate schools.” (85)

Macy, Devall et al founded the Institute for Deep Ecology. IDE holds summer schools and workshops at Occidental, CA. At IDE “deep ecology” is: “a philosophy based on our sacred relationship with Earth and all beings; an international movement for a viable future [and] a path for self-realization.” IDE is a church,activist group and an ecopsychology clinic seeking “to heal the contemporary alienation from self, community, and the Earth.” IDE’s “multi-faceted faculty of prominent environmentalists” trains teachers, preachers and psychotherapists. In the late 1990s IDE began organizing larger conferences, and the subsequent drive into “social justice” brought them into relationships with Physicians for Social Responsibility, Cultural Conservancy, and Indigenous Youth Alliance.Their 2000 Conference was entitled “Globalization or Earth Wisdom?” IDE has a facility in London, runs the Sierra Nevada Deep Ecology Institute (Nevada City, CA.) and has dozens of affiliates in the US and Europe offering “ritual-infused experiences in deep ecology and training for environmental activists.” Because of IDE, and similar organizations, deep ecology is now: “disseminated through the writings of its architects (often reaching college students in environmental studies courses); through journalists reporting on deep ecology-inspired environmental protests [and] through the work of novelists, poets and musicians.” (86)

Nature-borne Fanatics

From 1966 to 1974 Hippyism was a media-encouraged movement vehicle experimenting with, and disseminating, environmentalist ideas and practices. A recurring tactic of arch-conservativism (starting in the 1880s) is “back-to-the-land” drives. Hippy communes were of that sort. Tolstoy Farm and Drop City began in the mid-sixties – hundreds followed, many survived. Also, in what is an ongoing tactic of environmentalism’s youth outreach, Hippies were avid drug promoters. Hippies preached “drugs could open one’s awareness in a way that would lead to a rejection of industrial society in favour of natural simplicity.” There were other synergies: “use of marijuana by hippies also spurred the back to the land movement where the precious weed could be grown. (87) Hippyism’smajorthemewas “love of nature.” They avoided plastics, processed foods, and artificial fibres. As well:

“hippies were sharply critical of the degradation of the environment that had accompanied the development of industrial and technological society. The seeming human desire to master nature was, the hippies argued, a fatal mistake...hippie writings that took industrial society to task at length were often influenced by Asian religious thought and certain strains in American Indian religion.” (88)

Hippy attendance at the state-sponsored Earth Day (April 22, 1970) lent “a strong counter-cultural presence and flavour.” Moreover, “the milieu of environmental concern and activism that hippies helped propagate led to the emergence of several of the more radical national environmental organizations, including Greenpeace and Earth First!.” Hippycounterculture “lives on in Western society. Its waning days coincided with the rise of neo-paganism and Wicca.” (89) Its waning also coincided with the rise of eco-terrorism, the origins of which are murky. Abbey’s eco-saboteur glorifying The Monkey-Wrench Gang (1975) was based on “resistance” dating to the 1950s. Paganism’s early presence is evidenced in the Monkey-Wrenchcharacters’ slogan “Pan shall rise again” and in their calling the desert “holy country”.

ATWA are forgotten pioneers of US eco-terrorism. ATWA stands for: “Air, Trees, Water, Animals” and/or “All The Way Alive”. The Encyclopedia states ATWA “represents the uncompromising ecological mandate propounded by the infamous American convict Charles Manson.” (91) When jail-bird Manson got parole in 1967, he gathered a retinue of disaffected youth, took flight from the “madness of the cities” and established a colony in the mountains outside L.A. They explored Death Valley where:

“ September 1969 some members attempted to thwart nearby road developments by deliberately setting an expensive piece of Earth-moving equipment on fire. This early act of ‘monkey-wrenching’ – occurred a number of years before the concept was popularized by Edward Abbey, David Foremen, and other radical environmentalists.” (92)

Manson discouraged meat-eating and promoted “a primal understanding of the natural world which included totemistic identification with various animals.” (93) “Rolling Stone” quotes him saying: “Have you ever seen the coyote in the desert? Watching, tuned in, completely aware. Christ on the cross, the coyote in the desert – it’s the same thing man...the desert is magic...the desert is God’s kingdom” (94)After Manson and several followers got life sentences (carving swastikas on their faces didn’t intimidate the jury), the remainder of his crew, in particular,Squeaky Fromme and Sandra Good, “became increasingly active in their efforts to raise awareness of the present system’s failure to properly steward the Earth.” (95) Fromme attempted to assassinate President Ford in 1975. In the 1980s Mansonites adopted ATWA to label an eco-spiritual worldview described as:

“In contrast to mainstream environmental groups with bureaucratic structures and tendencies toward compromise, ATWA is a state of radical consciousness, a way of thought and action that seeks to completely redress not just worldwide industrial pollution and ecological imbalance, but also the perceived unnatural evils of media control, consumerism, feminism, and matriarchy, overpopulation, and racial intermixing. ...ATWA’s proponents emphasize the unity of life on Earth, which is often spoken of in religious terms. Manson has stated that “Ecology is God.” (96)

After Good’s arrest for mailing death threats to hundreds of “corporate polluters”, an ATWA communiqué blared: “You are either working for ATWA – life – or you’re working for death. Fix it and live or run from it and die...ATWA is ATWAR with pollution. ATWA is a revolution against pollution.” Despite the passage of time and the demise of his lieutenants: “Manson maintains his status in American popular culture as a perennial outsider to the ‘Establishment’ and continues to attract interest from new generations of young people...his philosophy has been adopted by radical enterprises from the ultra-left June 2nd movement to revolutionary National Socialists...Manson’s ideas often reach a wide audience through various websites, music releases, and occasional media interviews.” (97)(The Encyclopedia does not mention ATWA butchered at least 9 people; perhaps many more.)

The Encyclopedia claims: “to some radical environmentalists, MOVE has continued to be an important symbol of resistance to consumerist society.” MOVE was founded in 1973 when ‘John Africa’ rented a house near U of Penn campus (Philadelphia) and, along with a group of African-American followers, began advocating “total separation from the evils of modern society”. MOVE’smission was “to stop industry from poisoning the air, the water, the soil, and to put an end to the enslavement of life – peoples, animals, any form of life.”  MOVE perceived themselves as a “radical back-to-nature movement – a Sierra Club with guns.” They eschewed soap and haircuts. “MOVE women delivered babies themselves, biting off and eating their umbilical cords and licking them clean. Unvaccinated pets roamed the premises which were also infested with cockroaches, termites and rats.” These activities, along with loudspeaker broadcasts of Africa’s teachings, in 1978 led to a police raid, several arrests and the bull-dozing of the premises. MOVE relocated and escalated tensions with barricades and battles. Finally, “police dropped an explosive device onto the house from a helicopter and burned down most of the city block. Eleven members were killed in the fire and a battle with police that accompanied the action.” (98)

Earth First! (EF) was founded by “career environmentalists” to escalate the war in the woods at the beginning of the Reagan era. The plan was to increase costs in the resource sector through sabotage and civil disobedience or in EF’s words, to wage “economic warfare against those destroying nature.” A second aim was to “shame mainstream environmentalists into taking stronger stands.” The Encyclopedia notes eco-terrorism benefitted “mainstream groups” by making them “appear more reasonable by comparison, thereby increasing their influence and effectiveness.” (99) One beneficiary was the Washington DC-based Wilderness Society (WS). Founded in 1935 by ‘America’s Goering’ Aldo Leopold et al, WS is known for “zealous devotion” to the “sacred wilderness”. In the 1930s WS “extended the cultural critique of modernity advanced by earlier advocates of wilderness, but they did so with a singular opponent in mind: the automobile tourist.” (100) WS was uniquely aggressive about roadless forests. After WWII, WS campaigned against dams and logging. WS led the drive for the Wilderness Act (1964) and boasts of ‘protecting’ 100 million acres of forest. In 1980 David Foreman left WS to found EF.  

Anarchism and bio-centrism were well represented within the early EF milieu but “the most common perception animating the movement can be labelled ‘pagan’.” Foreman claimed a Pagan-spiritual heritage derived from Starhawk, Snyder, Abbey, and Leopold. EF’s journal published Pagan calendars, expressed enthusiasm for indigenous religions and criticized Christianity.(101) Foreman denounced Puritans for bringing agriculture to America. EFers were unaware of Naess in 1980 but upon discovering him they “immediately seized on and adopted Deep Ecology as EF!’s natural philosophy.” (102) Also, their journal frequently carried Anarchist articles and its masthead renounced state authority.

A schism surfaced in a 1982 EF journal editorial objecting to tree and road spiking as potentially injurious to workers. The author was expelled by Foremen’s faction who claimed the ecological crisis’ urgency necessitated such risks. Foreman’s crew christened themselves “rednecks for the wilderness” and furthered that if attacked during operations they might respond with lethal force. Foreman wrote “there are many paths one can take to defend our Earth Mother – including that of the warrior.” (103) This generated further schisms. In 1983 some Oregon-based EFers formed the “Cathedral Forest Action Group” to distance themselves from Foreman’s martial tones. Social EcologistM. Bookchin accused EF of mysticism, misanthropy and for arguing “starvation was a solution to human overpopulation and environmental degradation.” (104) Criticism also came from, “impatient” EFerswho wanted to escalate tactics. Arson began shortly thereafter.(105)By the mid-1980s Anarchists connected to the “Live Wild or Die” journal led this ‘more-eco-radical-than-thou’ faction. Coterminously, labour organizer Judi Bari rose to prominence advocating “revolutionary ecology.” She became famous in 1990 when a bomb exploded in her car. She and her companion were fighting to protect California redwoods. Both had strong pagan-spiritual sensibilities; her companion was in the Church of All the Worlds. The bomb and circumstance led authorities to accuse them of eco-terrorism which led Bari to launch a lawsuit resulting in the award of $4.4 million to her estate in 2002. She died of cancer in 1997. (106)

In 1989 Foreman and others were charged with sabotage. Responding to the wave of “ecotage” sweeping the Western US, the FBI infiltrated the radical environmentalist underground including a Foreman-inspired cell plotting to topple electrical transmissions towers. Foreman, “in an unusual plea agreement” had his charge reduced and escaped prison time. His co-conspirators got 7 years each. (107) (Both were “motivated by a deep earthen spirituality”. One sang protest songs at her sentencing. The other bragged about damaging ski-lifts on a “sacred” mountain.) After the trial Foreman and other founding EFers – “career environmental activists whose primary concern was passion for the wilderness” – disassociated themselves from the organization they created. (108) They left EF but not the movement. Foreman “founded the Wildlands Project in 1992 and started a new magazine, Wild Earth. Both endeavours reflected a more mainstream political strategy.” He resumed “association with many of the leading figures in this field” including “scientists, grassroots biodiversity activists, private landholders, and environmental groups such as the Nature Conservancy.” (109)

This left EF in Anarchist’s hands – mostly young urban malcontents. They flourished, particularly in the UK where their style found a home in the “furious direct action resistance to road-building.” (110) “Elves” popped up in 1992 when frustrated EFers formed the Earth Liberation Front (ELF). A 1993 communiqué from “Tara the Sea Elf” (a name honouring fascist/author Williamson) “claimed the elves had created 20 clandestine cells in England, and had used arson and other means to attack corporations in Europe and North America.” (111) Elves view their mission as “defending the sacred.” Their propaganda expresses affinity with Tolkien’s fantasy literature and American Indian mythology. Elves consider themselves the Anarchist faction of the anti-capitalist movement. ELF internal anarchy leads to confusion between spokespeople and direct activists. In 2003 spokes-elves resigned to form a “truly revolutionary organization.” (112) In spite of their squabbling, ELF and EF are (circa 2005) “the best known of the Radical Environmentalist groups” in the English-speaking world with “beachheads in scores of countries.” (113)Elves have “expand(ed) their targets to include luxury homes and apartments being built in areas considered ecologically sensitive, ski resorts expanding into habitats considered critical to endangered species, sport utility vehicles, considered the most egregious examples of unbridled materialism and pollution-causing consumption. In the US alone, damages had grown to well over 100 million dollars, and the FBI had labelled the ELF its number one domestic terrorist organization.” (114)

Also on environmentalism’s fringe are the Satanists. While the worship of a Horned God is common in Paganism, and while many Paganists “find Satan useful to symbolize the dark side of nature”, an actual Church of Satan (CofS) did not appear until 1966. (115) Anton La Vey’s founding of CofS gave a “coherent voice to what had previously existed mainly as a fiction.” Despite Satanism’s anti-Christian veneer, “Satan” is aChristian deity. For centuries themyth of a Satanist church was exploited by Christian authorities.La Vey’s Satanic Bible (1969) being mass-marketed reached a wide audience. His religion is a mix of Nietzschean iconoclasm and trendy hedonism. Satanists believe “birthdays are the highest holidays.” They disdain the “supernatural” label, arguing they are in tune with “natural” instincts.They seek harmony with Nature’s ‘Law of the Jungle’. Satanism is an environmentalist religion:

“Satanists appreciate the natural order of the Earth’s ecosystem and oppose human activities disruptive to this harmonious structure... Satanists strongly empathize with non-human animals and thus many choose to support organizations that work toward the preservation of species...” (116)

(Pity the sucker who sells his soul to Satan only to end up flipping veggie-burgers at a Green Party birthday bash.) In 1975 a faction, believing Satan actually exists, split to found the “Temple of Set.” They haveabodyofliteratureandmembershipinthehundreds. Both Temple and Church benefit from “the use of Satanic imagery by popular musicians” allowing them to attract “many young people.” (117)

The Church of All the Worlds (CAW) began in the sixties when college kid/acid-head Tim Zell “deeply taken with Robert Heinlein’s sci-fi novel Stranger in a Strange Land” founded a community based on the ideas found therein. His “Green Egg” journal was launched in 1968. In 1970 Zell had a “cosmic acid vision” that Earth was a conscious entity, a goddess he later renamed “Gaia”. In the 1970s Zell got married and acquired a parcel of “sacred” land. A period of dormancy followed, broken in 1986 when CAW suddenly emerged as a national entity. Now CAW members “frequently participate in activist environmental groups, like EF!; and as a whole CAW has positioned itself strongly in alliance with environmental movements, most specifically with Deep Ecology.” CAW recruits young people into local “nests”. CAW is committed to the “central ritual of water-sharing and the idea of polyamory.” MembershipinCAWremainssmallbut the church “maintains a presence in major Pagan gatherings throughout the US and continues outreach into interfaith and environmental groups.” (118)

The Church of Euthanasia (CofE) was conceived in 1992 when “the Being” told Reverend Korda to: “Save the Planet, Kill Yourself”. Korda opposes our “overly rational” modern world. She preaches the “Age of Magic” was conquered by the “Age of Industry”. CoE proclaims itself, “the world’s first anti-human religion.” The Church believes, “humanity has fallen irredeemably out of balance with the larger biosphere”. CofE’s main commandment is: “Thou Shalt Not Procreate.” Its 4 pillars are: “Suicide, Abortion, Cannibalism, and Sodomy.” They deploys “shock tactics” called “Dada Actions” which, along with their publications and website, aim to awaken people to, “the Ecocide which is annihilating species, eco-systems, and everything else that does not serve human progress.” Prominent themes and images are, “Death, suicide, phalluses, cannibalism, and hatred of babies.” Korda believes, “public display of disturbing images, banners and artwork...allow unpleasant truths about the ugliness of humanity to enter consciousness.” The Encyclopedia defends CofE because “undergirding their transgressive identity...lie ethical and religious beliefs that life has a purpose.” To Korda, “as long as humans destroy the opportunity for this diversity of life to continue, then humanity is anti-life.” In the US CofE has tax exempt status as an educational organization. CofE has hundreds of members, mostly young men. CofE has appeared on the Jerry Springer Show and has distributed 50,000 ‘Save the Planet Kill Yourself’ bumper stickers. They have performed Dada Actions in Europe and South America. (119)

Both the Gaia Liberation Front (GLF) and the Voluntary Human Extinction Movement (VHEMT) believe annihilation of humans will restore ecological balance. VHEMT’s motto is “Live Long and Die Out!” and while they promote “voluntary extinction” by refusing to procreate, GLF supports “involuntary” acts of extinction. To GLFers, humans are “genetically programmed” to destroy the Earth. (120) With groups like this in mind, the Chemical and Biological Weapons Non-proliferation Program at the Monterey Institute of International Studieshasconcluded “the likelihood is increasing that one or another Radical Environmentalist group will deploy weapons of mass death to promote their cause.” (121)

The Encyclopedia makes only a passing reference to David Copeland, whose nature-induced epiphany led him to detonate shoe-boxes filled with dynamite and carpenter’s nails on crowded London sidewalks. It does not mention the Unabomber or eco-fanatic Richard Durn who massacred the city council in Nanterre, France.


Paganism plays a major role in environmentalism; especially in “actions directed at the preservation and defence of the environment Pagans are often on the front lines. Pagans frequently take leading roles in campaigns to stop what they perceive to be ecologically unsound forestry practices, unnecessary road-building projects, or the desecration of significant environmental landmarks; they actively engage in projects to restore prairies, wetlands, and forests.” (123)

The nonsense of Pagan hocus pocus squares itself when one realizes its quintessential, self-validating claim to be a “revival” of an ancient religion is utterly unfounded. One contributor hits the mark, writing: “it would be hard to claim that the self-defined Pagans of today are actually Pagan in any ancient sense. What is called Paganism or ‘neo-paganism’ is often closer to a pantheistic version of monism.” (124) Pagans take solace in the fact that “pagan” derives from the Latin word meaning “country-dwellerbut “pagan” gods of old were worshipped in cities by cultured urbanites. “Pagan” was a 4th century Christian insult. “Paganism” is a modern “religion of nature” practiced by ignoramuses.

Historical Druids, after considerable rehabilitation, went from being enemies of Christianity to proto-Christians. Little was thought of them from the Dark Ages until the 18th century when Welsh chauvinist Edward Williams (a.k.a. Morganwg) started a Druidical society in London. William’s elaborate Druidical documents and poems were taken as genuine for a century before being exposed as forgeries. Modern groups trace their roots to this 18th century Druidic “revival”.(125) During the 19th century the Ancient Order of Druids shaped modern Druidry under the influence of the pseudo-Celtic “revival” and Theosophy.Druidicgroupsproliferatedacross the English-speaking world and Europe after WWII, “in parallel with the growth of paganism, alternative spirituality and Celtic religiosity.” (126)Modern Druids observe the eight-point “Celtic” calendar (holding ceremonies on weekends nearest the sacred date to increase attendance). Many quote Morganwg’s hallowed prayers. “Traditionalists” demand access to Stonehenge even though its construction pre-dates the Druids. Fortunately, “archeo-astronomy” has aided the building of new “sacred” stone circles. White-robed Traditionalists elbow for attention with Christian Druids, New Age Druids, Cyber Druids, Syncretistic-Zen Druids, and Hassidic Druids with each type modifying gods and ceremonies to reflect variations of ancestry and appetite. Some incorporate “indigenous” rituals (didgeridoos and sweat lodges) into their ceremonies. (127) However, Druids are united in seeking affective links to the land. The Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids (est. 1964) declares its mission is “to work with the natural world, to cherish and protect it.” The Charnwood Grove of Druids’ declared goal is to “balance and heal the Earth.” Predictably,“Druids are committed to schemes for planting woodland, and some have been involved in protest action against the destruction of ancient sites, landscapes or forest.” (128)

Druids tend to be Celtophile. Odinists and Heathens, as believers of “reconstructed” forms of North European Paganism, are Germanophiles. Many practitioners prefer to call their religion “Asatru” – meaning “faith in the Aesir (Gods)”. Their cosmology focuses on ‘The Tree’ upon which Odin hung himself in his quest for wisdom and the “runes” (primordial Germanic symbols.) In Odinist mythology, humans were created after Odin bestowed consciousness upon trees. (129) In Odinism there are nine worlds, with “Midgard” being inhabited by humans. (Midgard is the “Middle Earth” of Tolkien’s novels, which also feature sentient trees.) In general, Heathenism and Odinism eschewsdogmatism. Seers are common but not universal. Some engage in the rune-casting to foretell the future. For most, Odinism/Heathenism means “rituals and feasts” involving “symbolic sacrifices and drinking meads and ales.” Revival of medieval wood-crafting and brewing techniques are also popular.  

Odinism is not ancient and the verb “revival” is a misnomer. The religion was concocted by followers of German counter-enlightenment supremo, J. Herder (1744-1803). H. Behrisch’s Wodan, the Hero and God of the Saxons (1775) declared Wodan (Odin) to be the original Saxon god and urged all Germans to re-discover their roots in the “sacred darkness of the northerly forests”. Over a century would pass before the establishment of formal German Pagan organizations. (130) In the English-speaking world,Australian lawyer and writer, Alexander Rud Mills (1885-1964) was first to promote Odinism. He was “stridently anti-Jewish” and “never found much support.”(131)In Europe and the English-speaking world after WWII, “public perceptions that National Socialism had been a pagan movement” suppressed the religion such that “twenty years would pass before Germanic neo-heathenism began to flourish again.” (132) Around 1970 a number of Odinist groups cropped up in the US such as Odinist Fellowship (founded by a Rud Mills’ protégé) and the Viking Brotherhood. The Brotherhood morphed into the Asatru Free Assembly (AFA) – the first national Odinist organization to gain momentum. It generated two significant and still active splinter groups before reconstituting itself as the Asatru Folk Assembly. (133) In England, Odinic Rite (est. 1973), the movement’s early riser, was copied by a variety of groups over the next quarter century. (134) In Scandinavia, Odinism also dates to the 1970s. (135) In Iceland and Norway, Odinism is a legally recognized religion and it is a criminal offence to mock their representatives. (136). Across the West, there is a growing list of national Odinist organizations, hundreds of local circles and innumerable solitary practitioners. Odinism involves ancestor worship which, the Encyclopedia notes, “in certain instances this can include strong racial beliefs.” To some, Odinism is “foremost as a racial, or even racist, vehicle ....Groups associated with this hard-line position have a constituency consisting primarily of incarcerated males, and tend to be volatile.” (137)

While “prominent practitioners” describeOdinismas a “nature religion”, Heathens are conflicted over the label. While all Heathens believe “the earth is alive,” some contend Earth is but one deity of many and that Heathenry is “deity-based” not “nature-based”. At the same time, Heathens are notably animist, often claiming certain trees and rocks have spirits. (138) “Field-blessing” is a common Heathen “charm” and Heathenism, being based in the Edda myths, is replete with “living landscape” discourses. One of their nine virtues is “responsibility to local (Earth, plant, tree or animal) nature-spirits.” Thus, Heathens engage in “ecological activities, including road protests and (particularly in Britain) protecting sacred sites.” (139) Odinists and Heathens “promote ecological awareness” and “encourage their members to become involved with environmental activities.” (140)

Gerald Gardner (1884-1964) is credited with founding the Wicca religion but his work derives from Alistair Crowley, D.H. Lawrence, and the Golden Dawn clique who led the occult “revival”. Ritualistic, nature-venerating, polytheistic, magical occultism extends back through 19th century British fiction to Romanticism’s fascination with ancient deities. Gardner was also indebted to British folklorist and Egyptologist Margaret Murray who fabricated the myth of an ancient Horned-God-and-Fertility-Goddess-worshipping religion allegedly surviving great persecution. (Many Wiccans believe theirs is an ancient tradition and refer to the “Burning Times” as their “holocaust.” Historians have established that persecuted “witches” were unorganized, innocent scapegoats.) Gardner was a joiner: the Folklore Society, Co-Masons, Rosicrucians, and the Druid Order. His popularity resulted from timing and self-promotion. The Witchcraft Act (1736) was repealed in 1951, allowing him to publish Witchcraft Today. The book was hyped and Gardner was given numerous interviews by the media. He wrote The Meaning of Witchcraft (1959) while conjuring “Covens” across Britain. When his spirit moved on (1964), Wicca was firmly established. Originally pitched as a fertility cult, Wicca magically transformed into a “nature religion” worshipping Mother Earth and the Horned God. Most devotees are urbanites seeking connection to nature. (141) The standard Wiccan ritual guide, The Great Charge (by Gardiner’s high-priestess D. Valiente) concentrates Wiccan worship on “the goddess as the world of nature.” The goddess is the “soul of nature” responsible for the “beauty of the green earth.” (142) Witches believe the divine is imminent in nature and humans, gods and nature are interconnected. Variations on Gardnerian Covens appeared across Northern Europe and North America (where Native Indians’ rituals have been appropriated). Gardner’s Wicca was quartered intohigh-ritual witchcraft, hedge witchcraft, ‘folk rites’, and an ancient eastern esotericism. (143) American mutations added to the brew: “Reclaiming”, “Faery”, “Dianic”, and “Seax”. These have crossed back to Europe. Keeping with the times, “same sex couples can work effective rituals together” and “men can embody goddesses.” (144)

While “Wicca and environmentalism do not always go hand in hand”, many “Wiccans argue that they should.” Moreover,Wiccanpopularity is attributed to “the parallel rise in environmental awareness since the 1970s.” (145) One scholar chronicles Wicca’s transition from “nature veneration to nature preservation” calling it a shift “out of the darkness, the occult world of witchery, to occupy the moral high ground – environmentalism.” Wiccanshave a “range of attitudes toward protecting the natural world. Some are radical environmentalists while others view nature more abstractly.” Throughout the religion: “veneration of nature, the concern for the Earth, and the pantheism of seeing the divine in all of nature has led to an attitude of reverence for a romanticized wild, untamed landscape on the one hand and, to sadness or revulsion at human estrangement from this ideal...Wiccans have become involved in environmental struggles as a way of putting their beliefs into practice.” (146)

A prime example of Wiccan-environmentalism is theDragonEnvironmentalNetwork (DEN). Founded in London in 1990 by Wiccans influenced by Starhawk and Earth First!, DEN sought practical expression of Paganism by linking environmental action with magic ritual. Initially interested in woodland conservation, they discovered a promising niche in providing “eco-magical” support to the ‘Save Oxleas Wood’ campaign. “Eco-magic” consists of “raise the dragon” rituals to summon earthen energies and of creating “runes” which are “charged” with energy at drumming ceremonies often held in raves. Charged runes are action-specific logos worn by protesters and daubed on trees and construction machinery to intimidate workers. (147) During the Oxleas campaign DEN also used conventional activist tactics: postcard campaigns, petitions, school info kits, and fundraising events. The Oxleas campaign succeeded; the proposed road was cancelled. The emboldened Dragons then became involved with anti-road protests in East London and in the anti-M3 (Twyford Down) campaign where they “raised the dragon” during a mass trespass accompanied by frenetic drumming. While remaining an urban group, DEN focuses on nature preservation, particularly on woodlands “threatened” with road construction. By the mid-1990s DEN had over 300 dragons in 13 dens. Dragons publish local newsletters, a journal and attend conferences. To increase Pagan involvement in conservation work and environmental activism, DEN standardized the practice of eco-magic; and as rituals became common at British campsites, the Dragons printed a register of reputable practitioners. DEN activism peaked in the mid-1990s. The Dragons mellowed as “positive media coverage” made them celebrity representatives of Eco-Paganism within the larger interfaith and green communities. Dragons now work for Friends of the Earth and local councils while the Essex den manages woodland for the Wildlife Trust. Dragons continue their rituals at Reclaiming the Streets actions, street parties and raves, all the while seeking to “blur the distinction between ceremony, performance and political action”. (148)

Raves are an example (the Encyclopedia provides dozens) of the systematic use of drugs to convert people to the “religion of nature.” For all the raver’s self-congratulatory elitist-exclusivist hype about raves’ throbbing techno-rhythms and dazzling psychotropic lightshows... dude, they’re discos. What is new about raves is their heightened degree of organization and their environmentalist orientation. Fraser Clark, self-described Zippie (Zen Inspired Pagan Professional), pioneered House-Green fusion and “evangelized raves as the expression of a new Gaia-worshipping consciousness” in Shamanarchy in the UK. He was joined in the late 1980s by Hakim Bey (P. Wilson) who popularized Temporary Autonomous Zones. Bey describes outdoor raves as the use of drugs and music to allow youth to achieve communion with nature. Many outdoor raves are celebrations of celestial events “facilitated and attended by Pagans, travellers and other practitioners and affiliates of earthen spirituality.” Leading UK rave organizers “Spiral Tribe” pitched raves as “shamanic rites” where a combination of “certain chemicals and long periods of dancing, preferably in settings of spiritual significance, could reconnect urban youth to the Earth with which they had lost contact, thus averting imminent ecological crisis.” Similar views are held by “New Moon Collective” – California’s leading rave organizers. In Australia “GreenAnt” and “Electric Tipi” use raves to mobilize anti-forestry, anti-mining and pro-Aboriginal activism. (149)

Some Eco-Paganists, not formally Wiccan or Heathen, were drawn into the religion after being recruited into protest campaigns. They hold “detraditionalized spiritualities.” These people live at protest camps where the prevailing worldview is a mix of “Shamanism, the New Age, Theosophy, 60s psychedelia, the Rainbow movement, and British folklore, while retaining a core pagan doxa.” Within this community, “critiques of Christianity’s role in creating cultures/structures of patriarchal anthropocentrism and dislocation from nature” are acommonthread binding protesters to an “eco-feminist, deep ecology” worldview.Two further traits of eco-pagan tribalists are chronic drug use (psychedelics and cannibas) and the “new age traveller culture”, i.e. “the romanticized gypsy life.” (150)

Exemplars of Pagan tribalism are the “Donga Tribe” which began when 20 young people tried to stop the Southampton-London motorway from being built across “Twyford Down”. (151) The Twyford initiative started when activists camped in front of bulldozers in August 1992. Protesters cultivated affective bonds to the Down through poems, songs and myths. Pagan leaders merged “myth-weaving and sympathetic magic” with direct action. Copious ingestion of magic mushrooms and drumming “enabled shamanic connections to the Earth” andincreased “the sense of sacredness.” Organizers learned “simply on the level of group psychology, this meld of ritual and direct action worked well.” Dongas lived in tarpaulin tepees, ate communal meals, and defecated in the bushes. Camping in front of bull-dozers worked until “Yellow Wednesday” (December 1992) when security guards removed the activists. The eviction’s “national media coverage” led to “a resurgence of protest”. (152) Dongas were the protest wave’s early risers. Eco-Paganism brewed for some time but not until 1992 did it boil. While not all protesters were Pagans, this element rode the wave’s crest. (153) Likewise, anti-road protests date back centuries and the “environment” rationale was evident in the 1970s, but 1992 marked both a heightening of intensity and broadening of targets to include runways and quarries. Twyford Down was a catalyst that “sparked a decade of roads’ protest and related direct action.” (154) Following Twyford:

“Protests followed across the country, culminating in the Newbury Bypass campaign (which, with many hundreds of protesters, achieved considerable media coverage) and the A30 campaign at Fairmile in Devon... Protesters combined “the protest camp” from the British anti-nuclear protests of the 1980s, with the direct action tactics of American Earth First!, to barricade themselves in camps along the proposed route, using treehouses, tunnels and other locking-on points, or to disrupt construction by “digger diving” and occasionally by eco-sabotage.” (155)

After Twyford the Dongas hit the “freedom trail.” Travelling on foot, bicycle and horse, they move between sacred sites and protest camps regarding themselves ecological and indigenous nomads. (156)

Twyford demonstrated Paganism’s compatibility with anti-development protest because “camp dwelling eco-pagans often feel intense emotional bonds with the tree in which they live, or the land they are defending.” (157)As well, Paganismexhibitsa functional “fascination with fairies.” Identification with fairies allies them with Nature. Fairiesare “downtrodden little people” facingeviction. Damagingmachinery “is called “pixieing”, a move that downplays the implications of what is effectively sabotage.” Some literally believe in fairies due to “phenomenological encounters with fairies, entheogenically [drug] inspired or otherwise.” (158)This nonsense is not confined to Britain:

“There is some evidence of similar, but locally nuanced, practices occurring in Europe....heathen neo-shamans invoked “ice-giants” from Norse mythology using seidr trance, so as to prevent residential construction outside Stockholm. Whatever its cause, the resulting freeze prevented work just long enough for the local government to be persuaded to abandon its plans.” (159)

There are many American eco-pagan groups. Earth Spirit Community (ESC) is “a national organization of neo-pagans located in western Massachusetts.” ESC organizes festivals, maintains a website and offers classes.ESC is runbypeoplewho “have taken the last name Arthen, share a homestead... and are members of the Glenshire Order of Witches.” (160) Theirperformance group ‘Mothertongue’ producesrecordingswith “neo-pagan and nature themes.” ESChosts a weeklong ‘Rites of Spring’ festival (which draws up to 700 Pagans) and three smaller annual rituals. They co-represent Paganism at the World Parliament of Religions. ESC’s 4,000 dues-paying members (mostly New Englanders) receive newsletters and notices. Their glossyFireheart’was a soapbox for groups like Earth First!. Inside ESC:

“the focus is on what they believe all neo-pagans share – a magical worldview and reverence for the Earth. Animals, streams, trees, the wind, and stones are all venerated as part of the sacred web of creation. Woven into the fabric of the rituals is a theme that humanity, which is viewed as part of the sacred web, needs to honour and protect nature. The group encourages its members to be environmentally responsible. Some outdoor rituals include the planting of trees or the removal of trash from public lands as a symbol of the participants’ respect and care for Mother Earth.” (161)

Circle Sanctuary (CS) advertize themselves as “one of America’s oldest and most prominent Wiccan churches and nature spiritual resource centres.” CS was founded in 1974 by High Priestess Selena Fox to serve “nature religion practitioners worldwide through its networking, websites, events, healing work, education, and publishing ministries.” Selena is quoted: “I am Pagan. I am part of the whole of Nature. The Rocks, the Animals, the Plants, the Elements, and Stars are my relatives.” (162)Subsidiary ‘Circle Network’ brings together “thousands of individuals and groups, and hundreds of paths of contemporary Paganism and related forms of ecospirituality including Wicca, Druidism, Animism, Teutonic Paganism, Unitarian Universalism, Daoism, Pantheism, ecofeminist spirituality, and multi-cultural Shamanism.” CS publishes books, periodicals and the annual Guide to Pagan Groups. Their Wisconsin HQ is on the 200-acre “CS Nature Preserve” near “an ancient Native American holy place” where they practise: “forest and wetland conservation, prairie restoration, songbird research and preservation, environmental education, and ecospiritual activities. CS membersviewenvironmentalactivitiesas “sacred work.” At the preserve “science and religion converge.” SubsidiaryLadyLibertyLeague(LLL),leadscivil rights endeavours on behalf of Pagans. LLLparticipated in overturning “US federal anti-Wiccan legislation” andhasaidedin successfulcourt battles involving land use and job discrimination. LLL consultantsfacilitate: “Pagan religious accommodation to chaplains and administrative staff in hospitals, corrections, US military and educational institutions.” CS is the first Wiccan church to put forth a US military chaplain candidate. They co-represent Paganism at the Parliament of the World’s Religions and co-founded the Nature Religions Scholars Network at the American Academy of Religions. They own one of world’s largest libraries of Pagan materials. They host the “Pagan Spirit Gathering” summer solstices at an Ohio preserve. (163)

Starhawk (b., Miriam Simos, 1951) was introduced to Dianic Witchcraft in the early 1970s and to Faery Wicca a few years later. In 1979 she wrote The Spiral Dance: a Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess and in the following year founded “Reclaiming” – the San Francisco-based “center for feminist spirituality and school in Witchcraft.” She has written several books. (By 2001 sales of Spiral Dancetopped 300,000 copies.) Early on she embraced a variation ofGimbutas’ “disputed thesis that the old Europeans originally worshipped a Great Goddess.” Thus, “scholars have criticized Starhawk for having invented an erroneous lineage to contemporary Witchcraft.” Undeterred, Starhawk billsReclaiming’as an old “earth religion” while pitching her brand’s “environmental and countercultural potentials.” ‘Reclaiming’reaches out to “oppressed people” likeNativeAmericans. Starhawk is a “community builder, perma-culturer, political organizer and activist, campaigning in particular for environmental, feminist and anti-war issues.” She influenced Earth First! and others “whose primary work is nature protection.” She trained people for anti-nuclear actions in the 1980s; was arrested repeatedly at the Diablo Canyon and Livermore Lab protests; and helped organize anti-globalization demos at Seattle, Washington and Genova. (164)

Evidence that Paganism is an environmentalist sub-movement is found in many Encyclopedia passages.  While there are many Pagan paths, “there is a single theme that unifies them: the worship or profound honouring of, and respect for, nature.” Sociological surveys “suggest that environmental concern was one of the most fundamental issues for Pagans, as well as one of the most important catalysts for people entering the religion.” (165)A religious studies professor asserts, “what attracts most people to Paganism now is the stress on honouring Nature.” This passage also notes Paganism “resonates most closely with the ‘Land Ethic’ of Aldo Leopold.” (166) Another entry claims Pagans encourage “direct encounters with nature, including environmental direct action” and that a Pagan’s religious “intensity” leads to strong identifications with ecosystems often requiring “confrontation with economic interests transforming ecologically diverse ecosystems.” (167)

Eco-Paganism went into a “dormant phase” in the late 1990s but surged with protest against “climate change and globalization.” Scholars are confidentitwill “emerge as a significant religious movement.” (168)In the US (circa 2001) there were 134,000 Witches, 33,000 Druids, and 140,000 Pagans. Add to these 68,000 persons claiming “New Age” as their religion and 103,000 subscribing to Indigenous Indian religions. These are the five fastest growing religions in the US and all are firmly within the organizational field of the US environmental movement. (169) Paganism in the UK is difficult to measure but is likely denser than in the US partially due to support from British academia. Several academic conferences were held in the 1990s (“Paganism Today” 1995 – U of Newcastle; “Nature Religion Today” 1996 Lancaster U, etc.). Each was followed by a flotilla of Pagan books. Conference participantsengagedin “forms of ritualized nature veneration.” Britishscholars “not only study the various manifestations of nature religion but are directly involved in such religious production, both in scholarly ways and by participating in ritual and ethical action. The ethical action is defence of ecosystems.” (170) 


Pantheism is a form of Monism – the deity-infused belief that “all is one”. Pantheists believe “all is god” – that god is the universe. Most claim descent from Spinoza (1632-1677) but he had forebears like J. Eckhart (1260-1327), who successfully defended himself against charges of Pantheism, and fellow Dominican and kindred Pantheist, G.Bruno, who kindled painfully in 1600. Pantheists are deists in search of a church. Christianity and Islam’s gods stand “outside” nature as its autonomous creator while Naturalists eschew the supernatural and sacred – things Pantheists cannot let go of. Thus, whilethere are “Abrahamic pagan possibilities” and Naturalist affinities, those seeking an organized pantheistic embrace of a sacralised Nature are “by default virtually focused on paganism”.The sage leading the discussion on Pantheism, RobertCorrington, is “critical of militantly self-defensive Western monotheism.” His “ecstatic naturalism” capturesthesacredinnature’s “numinous folds of semiotic plenitude.” Tohim, thesacredis “simply nature’s most important manifestation.” He rejects “supernaturalism” but also humanismfor refusing to affirm “the utter supremacy of the transfiguring potencies of nature”. His disciples use: “numinous,” “sacred,” “divine,” “epiphany,” and “transpersonal” but not embarrassments like: “magical,” “supernatural,” “talismanic,” “holy,” or “spiritual”. HisPanentheism” is similar to “process theology” wherein god “lures” in nature.Processors forsake “supernatural” but not “imminent preternatural”. (171) Such are the linguistic agonies and emotional ecstasies of academic Pantheism.

The World Pantheist Movement (WPM) was organized over the internet by British environmentalist Dr. Paul Harrison. WPM was incorporated in the US in 1998 and opened for membership the following year. WPM promotes a: “religious response to nature and the universe, with nature as the central focus of beliefs, practices, activities and ethics.” WPMers wish to “cherish and preserve nature” and “acknowledge the inherent value of all life, human and non-human.” Their views are “closely related to those of deep ecology.” WPM ceremonies include “nature walks...meditations within nature...shared organic meals or even pagan-like rites of a purely symbolic character.” WPM networks with other Pantheists through “picnics, star watching and so on.” They set up the first Pantheist Usenet e-mailing list and 60 other mailing lists and bulletin boards.(172) WPMers “are active environmentalists” who save wilderness through payments to the WPM’s Ecology Fund:

“By summer 2003 this group had saved 25 acres. This activity is funded by sponsors. The WPM itself sponsors this aspect of Ecology Fund and of Care2’s Save Rainforest sites, and by summer 2003 had saved an additional 62 acres in this way. Finally, in association with the National Wildlife Federation in the US, the WPM encourages its members to set aside land (even small amounts) for wildlife, through wildlife-friendly gardening and sustainable management in the interests of native wildlife.” (173)

California-based Pantheistic Association for Nature (PAN) (est. 1998) “is a religious conservation organization” founded to “spread Pantheism and encourage environmental action.” PANsters “celebrate the wonder, beauty, and divinity of Nature” andview “Pantheism as a well-spring of ecological consciousness” because “when people view nature as sacred, they may more readily treasure the natural world.” PAN organizes hikes and conservation projects (planting weeds). (174)

The oldest Pantheist group (est. 1975), the Universal Pantheist Society (UPS), wishes to change “attitudes away from anthropocentrism and toward reverence for the Earth... and to take appropriate action toward the protection and restoration of the Earth.” UPS prohibits exclusive interpretations of Pantheism but members define the religion as “being part of nature, not above nature” or “looking toward the natural world for our source of spiritual enrichment.” UPS has a website, quarterly publication and an “Ecological Community Preservation Fund” to “protect natural habitats.” (175)

Imperial Paganism

East European pagansare “in contact with and borrow a lot from the Nordic neo-pagans such as the Odinists and Asatru people.” Evola’s writings are “highly appreciated and adapted to the Russian environment.” (176) Russian Paganism consists of racist cliques like the ‘Russian Warriors’, ‘Church of Nav’ and ‘School of Wolves’ in which “well-educated urban intellectuals (poets, linguists, folklorists, philosophers, archaeologists, ethnographers) play a prominent role...systematizing folk beliefs and developing consistent religious teachings which can be presented as the primordial ethic.” (177) They draw on Theosophical occultism and Western folklore. For a bible they hold out theBook of Vles – a fraud written by a Californian who claims Slavs are Aryans. (178) They spread ethnic self-awareness, “Russianness”, in fictional and religious literature via media programs and school curricula. It’s called “cultural ecology.” Its objective is the “purification” of national culture. Theyview “Christianity as an evil ideology introduced by ‘the Jews’ to subjugate all peoples, especially Russians.” This hostility extends to all “cosmopolitan religions” whichtheyaccuseof “intolerance toward cultural variability, anthropocentrism, and... destruction of the natural environment.” Central to their faith is: “harmony with nature and rejection of consumerism.” Often the “cultural ecology orientation is taken to an extreme, resulting in... a close relationship between a neo-Nazi-like political extremism and this sort of neo-paganism which promotes ‘cultural ecology’ at the expense of practical environmentalism.” (179)

Ukrainian Paganism surged after Chernobyl. After Gorbachev it became less green, more racist. The BookofVles competes with an equally fraudulent History of the Ukraine – the bible for the “pantheistic monist” NativeUkrainian National Faith church – written by a Knight of the Order of the Solar God as he lounged in his castle in the Catskills Mountains, New York. His church, registered in the Ukraine in 1991, by 2000 boasted over 60 congregations. (180) Generally, UkrainianPagans “see the assertion of ethnic identity as equal if not greater in importance to preservation and defence of nature.” They view the “ethnosphere as a necessary component of the biosphere.” (181) Ukraine’s “native faith milieu” is home to ‘Aryosophists’ and an assortment of “nature-centered, cosmo-ecological, and theosophical” groups led by “science-fiction writers and nature mystics.” (182) Sociologists estimate over 90,000 Ukrainians are Pagans (0.2% of the population). Tallying is complicated because Pagan and “native faith groups” mingle with folk music revivalists, Cossack associations, ‘traditional’ martial arts clubs, and ultra-nationalist parties. Surveys reveal that “concern for nature is often voiced as a primary motivating factor for the conversion to a native faith perspective.” (183)

Greek Paganism is assisted by the World Congress of Ethnic Religions which organizes campaigns to protect landscapes “from the negative effects of the modern, desacralized, utilitarian and consumerist culture.” (184) Greek Paganism was evident in the 1920s when a prominent poet organized ‘Delphic’ feasts but was not a sustained movement until the 1970s, and it is still not a mass phenomenon. Pagans struggle “against the established ideology of the country concerning the historical fusion between Hellenism and Christianity.” (185) The sentiment is mutual as the Orthodox Church denounces Paganism as idolatrous, with some clerics condemning the lighting of the Olympic Games torch in Olympia as a dangerous ritual. Greek Pagans dislike the label “Pagan” preferring “Gentile Hellenes” and there is no serious attempt to revive “classical” pagan deity worship. Since 1997 the Supreme Council of Gentile Hellenes has sought to function as a higher coordinating body for groups like the ‘Society of Hellenic Antiquarians’, ‘Fallen from Zeus’ and ‘Torch’ who promote the pagan calendar and celebrate its holidays in outdoor rituals with libations and hymns. They engage in fire-walking and perform Pagan weddings. The oldest group, Torch (est. 1982) has ajournalextolling the: “unparalleled contribution of the Hellenes to universal civilization and the superiority of the Hellenic race.” The journal puts out: “New Age spirituality, nationalistic ideas and anti-Semitic propaganda.” As well, “Nature and environmental issues are occasionally taken into account by attracting public attention to or by organizing protests against environmental degradation, while Christianity is held responsible for the desacralization of nature.” (186)

Greek Paganism’s “environmentalist sensitivities” are directed toward the defence of sacred groves, stones, and temples. The suppression of land development in the Mediterranean is not usually justified with “biodiversity/nature/wilderness” rationales but on “historic/scenic/sacred” grounds.  From every vista remnants of ancient temples compete for space with old basilicas and Orthodox domes churches. Greek landscape is defined by temples to Olympian deities and whitewashed churches on the Aegean islands. The Parthenon is the centre-piece of Athens. Religious architecture “exoticizes Greece.” Old urban monasteries are now historical monuments while new monasteries are built “in remote rural areas... away from the profane urban environment.” Cemeteries cover vast areas. Development proposals are accused of blighting this historic-scenic landscape. Among the masses, landscapes are “believed to be inhabited by other supernatural beings” who are to remain inviolate.(186)

The academic companion of imperial paganism is Ethno-ecology which “combines ecology and ethnology to shed light on diverse cultural ways of understanding the natural world and the supernatural cosmos.” The focus is on “traditional ecological knowledge” or “indigenous knowledge.” Ethno-ecologists contend “tremendous environmental information is stored in the minds, cultures, and arts of indigenous peoples” and thatappreciatingthis knowledgeis urgent because it “is being lost as elders die and their cultures undergo dramatic change.” Unsurprisingly, ethno-ecologists discovered “indigenous religions and cultural ecologies are based on beliefs in the intrinsic value of the land.” Equally unsurprising, the investigating of indigenous religions is justified by its contribution to environmentalism. Ethno-ecologyis vital for “conservation management.” Research is designed to helpindigenouspeoples “gain greater political and economic control over their lands.” Ethno-ecological insights help “ensure the well-being of the land” and “ease the strain of resource exploitation.” (187)

Imperial paganism’s show case, the Mari El Republic, is located in the Central Volga Basin 700 kilometres from Moscow. This statelet’s population of 800,000 is half Finno-Ugric (Mari), and it is among them Paganism, associated with anti-Russian sentiment and supported by the regional government, has surged since the 1990s. Eight percent of the Republic’s population are now practising Pagans while another 20% mix Pagan and Christian practices. MariPaganismholds “environmental awareness and ‘harmony with nature’ among its central moral imperatives.” Over 300 ‘sacred groves’ have been protected and are used for open air masses involving sacrifices of horses and rams. (188) So successful is the “revival,” there are plans to make El Mari a “cultural-historic” destination with an “ethnographic museum,” educational centre and hotels. The area attracts Western academic interest as “Mari Republic’s evolution may provide some interesting clues as to the future development of European Paganism.”(189)


If we must flip into ecstatic awe about something, why not about the scale and sophistication of this social movement? The entire Paganist/Pantheist campaign is a small fraction on the religious front of this movement’s mass mobilization. The Paganist/Pantheist campaign is a subset of a New Age-occultist-astrological-UFO barrage coming through the mass media. The entire new religions campaign is dwarfed by the efforts this social movement has placed into appropriating old religions, notably Christianity. The entire religious campaign, old and new, is but one of several initiatives this movement has undertaken with a view to corrupting and/or appropriating industry, academia, science, the media and the state.

The Encyclopedia uses the words ‘sacred’ and ‘nature’ several thousand times each. ‘Sacred’ has many synonyms like: ‘holy’, ‘blessed’, ‘cherished’, etc., but in this context it usually means: ‘untouchable’, ‘protected’, ‘inviolate’, etc. ‘Nature’ is almost indefinable, but in this text it is usually a synonym for ‘wilderness’ – for undeveloped land. This brings us to the Big Con; the Big Lie that there is a shortage of land justifying preventing vast areas from being opened for development. To land magnates in Western Europe and the US Northeast, the high value of their fortunes rests upon preventing ‘nature’ from being opened up. It’s about supply and demand. Discussions about developing wilderness do not take place within a common sense, utilitarian, economic framework. Wilderness is viewed as ‘sacred’, hence inviolate. Exorbitant temporal land values are the condition predicating the spiritual illusion.

Ecology is sometimes called “the subversive science”. This is too generous because Ecology should not be grouped with the sciences at all – it is a religion. Ecology is Pantheism and Pantheism is nature worship. Among the sciences and humanities, this highly political “religion of nature” functions like a computer virus. Many faculties over the last 40 years have imparted sub-disciplines led by the “eco” prefix or the “environmental” adjective. Ecology aspires to theocracy – to Pantheocracy. This is not some distant dystopia. Already, across the West development proposals are routinely vetted through environmentalist inquisitions where the precautionary principle, the rights of migratory animals, complexity theory and the sacrality of nature are within the realm of legitimate discourse.


Encyclopedia Britannica, Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.; Chicago, 2003.
Jones, Lindsay (ed.) Encyclopedia of Religion; Thomson Gale, Farmington Hills, MI, 2005
Taylor, Bron (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature; Thoemmes Continuum, New York, 2005.
US Census Bureau; Statistical Abstract of the United States 2008, Washington DC


*As part of Emperor Julian’s efforts to resuscitate Paganism an emissary was sent in 362 to the Delphi temple to inquire into restoring the oracular tradition. The preamble is the temple caretaker’s response.

1. Taylor, Bron (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature; Thoemmes Continuum, New York, 2005. p xxviii
2. Ibid p 531
3. Ibid p 531
4. Ibid p 458
5. Ibid p 639-40
6. Ibid p 639 & 642
7. Ibid p 642
8. Ibid p 642
9. Ibid p 640
10. Ibid p 642
11. Ibid p 642
12. Ibid p 639
13. Ibid p 640-3
14. Ibid p 641
15. Ibid p 641
16. Ibid p 1219
17. Ibid p 641
18. Ibid p 642
19. Ibid p 642
20. Ibid p 643
21. Ibid p 642
22. Ibid p 643
23. Ibid p 476
24. Ibid p 531
25. Ibid p 760
26. Ibid p 1245
27. Ibid p 526
28. Ibid p 211
29. Ibid p 1607
30. Ibid p 735
31. Ibid p 736
32. Ibid p 1203
33. Ibid p 1203
34. Ibid p 1204-5
35. Ibid p 1596
36. Ibid p 1597
37. Ibid p 1597
38. Ibid p 1597
39. Ibid p 450-1
40. Ibid p 759
41. Ibid p 457
42. Ibid p 761
43. Ibid p 760-1
44. Ibid p 760
45. Encyclopedia Britannica, Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., Chicago, 2003; Volume 5 p 800-2
46. Taylor, p 589
47. Ibid p 590 and . Encyclopedia Britannica volume 4 p 447
48. Taylor p 590
49. Ibid p 589
50. Jones, Lindsay (ed.) Encyclopedia of Religion; Thomson Gale, Farmington Hills, MI, 2005, volume 4 p 2758-60
51. Taylor, p 625
52. Ibid p 625-6
53. Ibid p 626
54. Ibid p 626
55. Ibid p 476
56. Ibid p 476
57. Ibid p 476
58. Ibid p 476
59. Ibid p 475-6
60. Ibid p 1149-50
61. Ibid p 456
62. Ibid p 1149-50
63. Ibid p 560
64. Ibid p 560
65. Ibid p 625
66. Ibid p 1119
67. Ibid p 1119
68. Ibid p 1119-20
69. Ibid p 518 & 1326
70. Ibid p 458-9
71. Ibid p 456-9 and 1326-30
72. Ibid p 1333
73. Ibid p 457
74. Ibid p 458
75. Ibid p 456
76. Ibid p 456
77. Ibid p 456-7
78. Ibid p 1328
79. Ibid p 1328
80. Ibid p 1328-9
81. Ibid p 458
82. Ibid p 456
83. Ibid p 1329
84. Ibid p 457
85. Ibid p 427
86. Ibid p 461
87. Ibid p 780
88. Ibid p 779
89. Ibid p 780
90. Ibid p 519
91. Ibid p 127
92. Ibid p 128
93. Ibid p 128
94. Ibid p 128
95. Ibid p 128
96. Ibid p 128
97. Ibid p 128
98. Ibid p 1123
99. Ibid p 518
100. Ibid p 1750
101. Ibid p 518-9
102. Ibid p 519 & 457
103. Ibid p 519-20
104. Ibid p 458
105. Ibid p 520
106. Ibid p 520
107. Ibid p 520
108. Ibid p 520
109. Ibid p 521
110. Ibid p 521
111. Ibid p 521
112. Ibid p 522
113. Ibid p 518
114. Ibid p 522
115. Ibid p 1250
116. Ibid 1483-4
117. Ibid 1483-4
118. Ibid p 383-4
119. Ibid p 384-5
120. Ibid p 385
121. Ibid p 1332
123. Taylor, p 1232
124. Ibid p 1241
125. Ibid p 507
126. Ibid p 507 & 1247
127. Ibid p 507-8
128. Ibid p 508-9
129. Ibid p 1218
130. Ibid p 1219
131. Ibid p 1219
132. Ibid p 1219
133. Ibid p 1219
134. Ibid p 1219
135. Ibid p 1220
136. Ibid p 1219 & 1252
137. Ibid p 1220
138. Ibid p 752 & 1218
139. Ibid p 752
140. Ibid p 1220
141. Ibid p 1740
142. Ibid p 1740
143. Ibid p 1247
144. Ibid p 1741
145. Ibid p 1741-2
146. Ibid p 1742
147. Ibid p 556-7
148. Ibid p 507
149. Ibid p 1347-8
150. Ibid p 557
152. Ibid p 504
153. Ibid p 556
154. Ibid p 505
155. Ibid p 556
156. Ibid p 557
157. Ibid p 557
158. Ibid p 557
159. Ibid p 557
160. Ibid p 529
161. Ibid p 530
162. Ibid p 1233
163. Ibid p 392
164. Ibid p 1596
165. Ibid p 1248
166. Ibid p 1232-3
167. Ibid p 1248
168. Ibid p 557
169. US Census Bureau; Statistical Abstract of the United States 2008, Washington DC page 59
170. Jones, p 2665.
171. Taylor, p 1259-60
172. Ibid p 1769-70
173. Ibid p 1770
174. Ibid p 1261
175. Ibid p 1683
176. Ibid p 1187
177. Ibid p 1186-7
178. Ibid p 1187
179. Ibid p 1187
180. Ibid p 1188-9
181. Ibid p 1188
182. Ibid p 1189
183. Ibid p 1189
184. Ibid p 721
185. Ibid p 720
186. Ibid p 719
187. Ibid p 622-3
188. Ibid p 1223-4
189. Ibid p 1252

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